We often mix the terms landscape and nature. The concept of the 'three natures' in sixteenth-century Italian garden theory draws a clear distinction between nature, landscape - and a third layer: the garden. In 1705 the French physicist Abbé de Vallemont depicts the concept of the 'three natures' in a drawing. At the top of his drawing he depicts a wild, mountainous landscape with trees, caves and a waterfall: first nature. At the foot of the mountain is the cultivated, agricultural landscape: second nature. A tightly cut hedge forms the transition to the formally furnished garden: third nature.

Now, more than 450 years on, artist Iwan Smit has created a contemporary version of the Vallemont drawing from 1705 based on an idea by architectural historian Lara Voerman and garden designer and researcher Joost Emmerik. To what extent have the relationships between the three natures and nature and culture changed completely, both in physical form and in our experience? The mural by Iwan Smit is part of the Dissident Gardens programme and can be seen in Het Nieuwe Café.

Hetty Berens, Guus Beumer, Marten Kuijpers, Klaas Kuitenbrouwer, Maurizio Montalti, Suzanne Mulder, Marina Otero Verzier, Mark Wigley
Frank Bruggeman, Overtreders-W, Andres Jacques
Boy Vereecken, Bardhi Haliti